World beer history
The origin of beer is closely related to the origin of grain. Human use of cereals to make alcoholic beverages has been more than 8000 years of history. The oldest known wine literature is the Babylonian sacrifice made of clay plates, made of beer, from about 6000 bc. In 4000 BC, Mesopotamia had 16 kinds of beer made from barley, wheat and honey. The two areas belong to the Nile River in ancient egypt. The brewing technology of beer was passed from Egypt through Greece to Western europe. Eighteenth Century BC, the Babylonian King Hammurabi issued code, have detailed records of beer. Around 1300 BC, Egypt's beer as a national excellent industry under management has been highly developed. Napoleon, the Egyptian expeditionary force in Egypt found the Rosetta stone on the hieroglyphics show that local in BC 196 years has been popular beer drinking.
The characteristics of ancient beer:
1. the use of air in the natural fermentation of wine yeast.
2. use different kinds of spices and herbs without hops. Add sugar, lemon, and take it yourself.
The use of bitters began in 3000 bc. Bitters is long, but the first explicit use of hops as bitter agents in the year 768 before the middle ages, the earliest use of hops, countries are Egypt and Germany, until fifteenth Century to determine the beer with hops. In the 1~2 century AD, the ancient Rome politician Plini (62~113 AD) mentioned beer production methods, including the use of hops. Beer is brewed mostly by women in the family. By the middle ages, beer brewing has shifted from family production to workshops in monasteries and villages, and has become an important part of monastic life. The abbey's main diet is bread and beer. Medieval monasteries improved beer brewing techniques, while beer trade ties were established and held in the hands of priests. In the middle ages, in Europe beer was used to pay a tithe, to trade and to pay taxes to the government. In medieval Germany, the brewing owners of beer formed the trade association. German beer, which uses hops as a bitter agent, has also been exported abroad, and cities such as Bremen and Hamburg have prospered. The prevalence of German beer in the 17~18 century made wine slump at one time. In the early nineteenth Century, British beer production was extensively industrialized, with an annual output of 20ML. The middle of the nineteenth Century German Bavarian state began following fermentation, brewing beer with good flavor, gradually spread throughout the country (before the mid nineteenth Century are used on fermentation.). In Germany, 92% of beer is produced by the following fermentation. Germany issued a decree in nineteenth Century, strict regulations of beer raw materials to maintain the purity of beer; but because of the implementation of the following fermentation and regularly pure culture yeast, so as to improve the quality of the beer, Munich beer becomes a modern reputation based. In the new American continent, in early seventeenth Century, beer was introduced by the Protestants of Holland and Britain, and in 1637 the initial brewery was established in massachusetts. Soon, beer as a modern industry developed rapidly, so that the United States has become more than Germany's beer producing countries. In nineteenth Century, the brewing scientists clarified the brewing technology.
In 1845, C.J. Bahrain clarified the theory of fermentation degree.
In 1857, Pasteur, France, defined the physiological aspects of microorganisms and concluded that the nature of fermentation was a chemical change made by microorganisms and created Pasteur sterilization. That's what we call pasteurization
In 1874, the invention of Linde refrigerator made the industrialization of beer become reality.
In 1881, E. Hansen invented the pure culture of yeast, which made beer brewing science advance by leaps and bounds, from mystery and empiricism to science.
At present, the annual output of beer in the world ranks first among all kinds of liquor. Beer is the largest production of wine, the United States at most (23 million tons / year), the per capita consumption is the largest in Germany (180 liters / year)http://www.zrbrewing.com/